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There are two kinds of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic, both of which consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane and contain many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
Cells reproduce through a process of cell division, in which the parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
Death is the permanent termination of all biological functions which sustain an organism, and as such, is the end of its life.
Biology is the primary science concerned with the study of life, although many other sciences are involved. The current definition is that organisms maintain homeostasis, are composed of cells, undergo metabolism, can grow, adapt to their environment, respond to stimuli, and reproduce.
To survive in most ecosystems, life must often adapt to a wide range of conditions.
Some microorganisms, called extremophiles, thrive in physically or geochemically extreme environments that are detrimental to most other life on Earth.
Eventually new groups and categories of life were discovered, such as cells and microorganisms, forcing dramatic revisions of the structure of relationships between living organisms.
Cells are sometimes considered the smallest units and "building blocks" of life.